There are limited situations in which a BB can do major damage to you if you are playing while while keeping these following general factors in mind and using them in your game play:
Broadsiding refers to showing the flat side of your ship to another ship.
This gives the enemy easy shots onto the citadel of your ship which can do high damage.
When attacking another ship, you want to keep your ship angled against the enemy to prevent access to this high damage potential area.
While armor values do play a factor in determining the optimal angle for each ship, a good angle to start with is about 30%.
OP mentioned they were taking large damage while being nose in; this is where effective armoring and over match mechanics come into play and is a slightly more advance mechanic.
Keeping slightly angled in this scenario is a good point to start however, instead of being perpendicular to the enemy, keep a slight angle as this will increase your effective armor.
Timing your Movement:
This builds on from avoiding broadside, BBs typically have anywhere from 20-30 seconds reload between their shots.
When making movements in front of BBs, you to try and be in your most vulnerable position(broadside) while they are not able to shoot at you because they are reloading.
Try to begin your turns after you see an enemy BB fire their salvo, if you haven't seen the ship fire recently, hold off your turn and keep your angle until they fire, then begin your turn.
This will reduce the likelihood of them getting a big hit on your vulnerable broadside.
Using information available and situational awareness:
As a newer player it can be a little overwhelming with all of the available information the interface gives you, but there are some key tools that can be really useful for keeping yourself alive longer.
Captain Skill: Priority Target
Widely taken as the first Captain skill, this one point skill indicates if you are being aimed at and how many people are aiming at you
In conjunction with timing your movements, this skill can give you earlier indication of when you may be in trouble with incoming shots coming towards you soon.
Try out these tips and let us know how you go.