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Internet backbone and ping info from wiki

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The Internet backbone might be defined by the principal data routes between large, strategically interconnected computer networks and core routers on the Internet. These data routes are hosted by commercial, government, academic and other high-capacity network centers, the Internet exchange points and network access points, that exchange Internet traffic between the countries, continents and across the oceans. Internet service providers, often Tier 1 networks, participate in Internet backbone traffic by privately negotiated interconnection agreements, primarily governed by the principle of settlement-free peering.

Infrastructure[edit]

The Internet backbone is a conglomeration of multiple, redundant networks owned by numerous companies. It is typically a fiber optic trunk line. The trunk line consists of many fiber optic cables bundled together to increase the capacity. The backbone is able to reroute traffic in case of a failure.[2] The data rates of backbone lines have increased over time. In 1998,[citation needed] all of the United States backbone networks had utilized the slowest data rate of 45 Mbit/s. However, the improved technologies allowed for 41 percent of backbones to have data rates of 2,488 Mbit/s or faster by the mid 2000s.[3]Fiber-optic cables are the medium of choice for Internet backbone providers for many reasons. Fiber-optics allow for fast data speeds and large bandwidth; they suffer relatively little attenuation, allowing them to cover long distances with few repeaters; they are also immune to crosstalk and other forms of electromagnetic interference which plague electrical transmission.[4

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Ping is a computer network administration software utility used to test the reachability of a host on an Internet Protocol (IP) network. It measures the round-trip time for messages sent from the originating host to a destination computer that are echoed back to the source. The name comes from active sonar terminology that sends a pulse of sound and listens for the echo to detect objects under water,[1] although it is sometimes interpreted as a backronym to packet Internet groper.[2]

Ping operates by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo request packets to the target host and waiting for an ICMP echo reply. The program reports errors, packet loss, and a statistical summary of the results, typically including the minimum, maximum, the mean round-trip times, and standard deviation of the mean.

The command-line options of the ping utility and its output vary between the numerous implementations. Options may include the size of the payload, count of tests, limits for the number of network hops (TTL) that probes traverse, and interval between the requests. Many systems provide a companion utility ping6, for testing on Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) networks, which implement ICMPv6.

History[edit]

The ping utility was written by Mike Muuss in December 1983 during his employment at the Ballistic Research Laboratory, now the US Army Research Laboratory. Created as a tool to troubleshoot problems in an IP network, Mike Muuss was inspired by a remark by David Mills on using ICMP echo packets for IP network diagnosis and measurements.[3] The author named it after the sound that sonar makes, since its methodology is analogous to sonar's echo location.[1][4] The first released version was public domain software while all subsequent versions were licensed under the BSD license. Ping was first included in 4.3BSD [5].

RFC 1122 prescribes that any host must process ICMP echo requests and issue echo replies in return.[6] However, as a security consideration, this is often disabled.[7]

 

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