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Today in WW1 and WW2 daily topics With the number of daily topics growing, Ari and i thought it might be handy to have a central place with links to them. So...here we go! Note: i'll try and keep this thread updated as we post more daily topics September 4th: no specific focus September 5th: no specific focus September 6th: British T-class submarines September 7th: German type VII u-boats September 8th: no specific focus September 9th: British Town class destroyers September 10th: British submarine HMS Triton September 11th: German E-boats September 12th: German u-boat U-617 September 13th: US destroyer USS Kearny Septemver 14th: German u-boat U-30 September 15th: US CV USS Wasp September 16th: no specific focus September 17th: British CV HMS Courageous September 18th: US light cruiser USS Helena September 19th: US CVE USS Chenango September 20th: u-boat ace Wolfang Lüth September 21st: Convoy HX-72 September 22nd: Convoy HX-72 and German u-boat U-100 September 23rd: British light cruiser HMS Nigeria September 24th: Operation Menace and US CVE USS Suwannee September 25th: US battleship USS Wyoming and opteration Menace September 26th: Convoy HG-73 and CVE USS Bogue September 27th: British light cruiser HMS Kenya September 28th: French battleship Paris and British battleship HMS Howe September 29th: German pre-dreadnough SMS Hannover September 30th: French battleship Lorraine and Italian light cruiser Luigi Cadorna October 1st: light cruiser SMS Mainz and destroyer Le Terrible October 2nd: fast battleship Dunkerque October 3rd: CV USS Lexington and battleship/battlecruiser Scharnhorst October 4th: Italian heavy cruiser Trento October 5th: Gato class subs October 6th: SMS Amazone and Katori class cruiser October 7th: German Kaiser Friedrich III class pre-dreadnoughts and Russian Gangut class dreadnoughts October 8th: German light cruiser Leipzig and Japanese carrier Shinano October 9th: British light cruiser HMS Hobart October 10th: Japanese Kuma class light cruiser October 11th: British J-class destroyers October 12th: Japanese heavy cruiser Furutaka October 13th: French Aigle class destroyers October 14th: German pre-dreadnought Brandenburg class and (the sinking of) HMS Glorious October 15th: Japanese dreadnought Kawachi and dreadnought classes Conte di Cavour and Kaiser October 16th: British dreadnought HMS Queen Elizabeth October 17th: Japanese Naniwa class and USN Battleship USS Arizona October 18th: German U-Boat ace Otto Kretschmer October 19th: no focus October 20th: Italian Zara class of heavy cruisers October 21st: Japanese Ibuki class semi-battlecruisers and seaplane tender Kiyokawa Maru October 22nd: French battleship Richelieu October 23rd: Japanese Takao class heavy cruisers October 24th: German armored cruiser SMS Scharnhorst October 25th: German Graudenz class CL, Russian Admiral Nakhimov class cruisers and Japanese Agano class October 26th: Dutch submarines and British Dido class CL October 27th: USS Pope and USS Pensacola October 28th: German protected cruiser class Victoria Louise, Italian Littorio class battleships and Japanese No. 101/T. 101 transports and landing craft October 29th: Königsberg class (1905), Isuzu, Guepard class and Duca d'Aosta class October 30th: SMS Baden and Duquesne class October 31st: Condottieri-class, Tromp-class, Japanese CVE Unyo, and Clemson-class November 1st: Battle of Coronel and Kaga November 2nd: French Duguay-Trouin light cruiser November 3rd: Raid on Yarmouth and Fuso-class November 4th: Hiei and Yamato November 5th: The carrier raid on Rabaul November 6th: Königsberg class (1929) and U-class submarines November 7th: USS Indianapolis November 8th: König class dreadnoughts and the Battle of Casablanca November 9th: IJN Nagato and the Battle of Duisburg convoy November 10th: IJN Nagara class cruisers and HMS Rodney November 11th: Helgoland-class dreadnoughts and the raid on Taranto November 12th: HMS Ramillies and the Battle of Ormoc Bay November 13th: IJN Hosho November 14th: The Battle of Guadalcanal and Admiralen class DD's November 15th: New Orleans-class and IJN Akitsu Maru and Kirishima Novermber 16th: Nassau-class dreadnoughts and USS Saratoga November 17th: Brooklyn-class light cruisers November 18th: Submarine Surcouf and cruisers La Gallissonière November 19th: USS West Virginia, HMAS Sydney November 20th: IJN Suzuya November 21st: Southampton-class and Tone-class November 22nd: Radetzky-class and Kamikawa Maru-class November 23rd: HMS Rawalpindi November 24th: Battlecruiser Strasbourg November 25th: HMS Barham, IJN Yasoshima (Ning Hai) November 26th: HMS Prince George November 27th: Operation Lila and Commencement Bay-class November 28: Turkey! (no focus) November 29th: Revenge-class and Chitose-class November 30th: Tegetthoff-class, Naka, Le Fantasque-class December 1st: Bremen-class and Essex-class December 2nd: HMS Dreadnought December 3rd: aircraft carrier Shoho December 4th: cruiser Chiyoda December 5th: Furutaka-class December 6th: HMS Bellerophon and Omaha class December 7th: SMS Moltke December 8th: HMS London, Akizuki-class destroyers December 9th: Saint Louis-class light cruiser and Kaiyo December 10th: The loss of HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse December 11th: Regina Margherita-class December 12th: HMS Majestic and HMS Magnificent December 13th: The Battle of River Plate December 14th: Haruna, the Taiyō-class CVEs December 15th: HMS Tiger December 16th: Königsberg-class (1915), HMS Ark Royal, Casablanca-class December 17th: HMS Nelson, Nelson-class, Alaska-class December 18th: USS Mississippi (BB-41) December 19th: Bogue-Attacker-Ruler classes and Tenryū-class December 20th: Sims-class December 21st: Erzherzog Karl-class December 22nd: Prinz Eugen December 23rd: Soryu December 24th: HNLMS Soemba and Mogador-class large destroyers December 25th: No focus December 26th: HMS Petard December 27th: Baltimore-class December 28th: Sumner-class December 29th: Kamikaze-class and Independence-class December 30th: St. Vincent-class dreadnoughts December 31st: Battle of the Barents Sea January 1st: Liberty ships January 2nd: HMS Venerable and HMS Campbeltown January 3rd: Fiji-class - HMS Shakespeare's run for life January 4th: Gearing-class January 5th: Gazelle-class light cruisers and LST's January 6th: Minas Gerais January 7th: Ruggiero di Lauria-class pre-dreadnoughts and Cleveland-class cruisers January 8th: HMS Repulse, Lexington-class Carriers January 9th: HMS Cornwallis and Farragut-class destroyers January 10th: Béarn January 11th: HMS Neptune and Mutsuki-class January 12th: Capitani Romani January 13th: IJN Hosho January 14th: HMS Royal Oak (1896) and HMS Emerald January 15th: Operation Drumbeat, Northhampton-class, Dante Alighieri January 16th: King George V-class (1911) January 17th: Battle of Koh Chang January 18th: Leander-class January 19th: Habsburg-class pre-dreadnoughts and US destroyer escorts part 1 January 20th: The Landing Craft, Tank January 21st: US destroyer escort part 2 January 22nd: HMS Agincourt January 23rd: Aoba January 24th: The Battle of Dogger Bank and MN Cyclone January 25th: Atlanta-class January 26th: Fletcher-class January 27th: Hyūga January 28th: Emile Bertin January 29th: Tama January 30th: Caesar-class January 31st: Queen Elizabeth-class and London-class February 1st: Orion-class and V&W-class February 2nd: Benham-class February 3rd: Benson-class and Gleaves-class February 4th: SMS Seydlitz February 5th: HMS Inflexible and KM Deutschland February 6th: USS Raleigh February 7th: HMS Ajax February 8th: SMS Sankt Georg February 9th: Colossus-class February 10th: HMS Havelock February 11th: SMS Kaiserin Elisabeth February 12th: USS Montpelier February 13th: IJN Kasagi February 14th: IJN Odoyo February 15th: Agano-class February 16th: Monarch Class February 17th: Southampton/Town-class light cruisers February 18th: Operation Hailstone, the destruction of Truk February 19th: E-boat February 20th: USS Kearsarge February 21st: Battle of Badung Strait February 22nd: Iowa-class February 23rd: Indefatigable-class battlecruisers February 24th: HMS Anson February 25th: USS Ranger February 26th: HMS Swiftsure & HMS Triumph February 27th: Battle of Java sea and Java-class cruisers February 28th: HNLMS De Ruyter March 1st: Mikasa March 2nd: HMS Stronghold March 3rd: Battle of the Bismarck Sea March 4th: Renown-class battlecruisers March 5th: HMS Hood March 6th: SMS Gneisenau March 7th: Taiho March 8th: HMS Warspite March 9th: Florida-class dreadnoughts March 10th: Kasuga-class armored cruisers March 11th: The County-class CAs March 12th: nothing March 13th: USS Sangamon Class CVEs March 14th: nothing March 15th: Flower-class corvettes March 17th: C-class light cruisers March 18th: Izumo-class armored cruisers March 19th: M15 & M29 Class Monitors March 20th: Hiyo-class carriers March 21st: SMS Von der Tann March 22nd: SMS Prinz Heinrich March 23rd: His Majesty's Trawlers March 24th: Andrea Doria-class aka Caio Duilio-class Battleships March 25th: Asahi March 26th: HMS Rawalpindi March 27th: Regina Elena-class battleships March 28th: Moltke-class battlecruisers March 29th: SMS Victoria Louise March 30th: Atago March 31st: Ryuhō April 1st: HMS Nothing April 2nd: Ryujō April 3rd: USS Jason April 4th: USS Wasp CV-7 April 5th: Roon-class armored cruisers April 6th: SMS Emden April 7th: HMS Queen and HMS Prince of Wales (1904) April 8th: Trafalgar Class April 9th: The Fubuki-class destroyers April 10th: Minelaying cruiser Pluton April 11th: Ashigara April 12th: HMS Medway April 13th: The Second Battle of Narvik April 14th: Aki April 15th: HMS Illustrious (1898) April 16th: SS America April 17th: MAC-ships April 18th: Bar class April 19th: HMS Diomede April 20th: Bretagne-class dreadnoughts April 21st: Victoria Class April 22nd: Naval Treaties April 23rd: HMS Swift April 24th: Myōkō-class CAs April 25th: SMS Dresden (1917) April 26th: Roberts Class April 27th: HMS Illustrious April 28th: Lapwing-class Minesweepers April 29th: Sendai-class Light Cruisers April 30th: Tennessee-class battleships May 1st: HMS York May 2nd: HMS Princess Royal May 3rd: St. Vincent class May 4th: Kiso May 5th: Yūbari May 6th: KM Gneisenau May 7th: Kirov Class May 8th: USS Savannah May 9th: King Edward VII class pre-dreadnoughts May 10th: Derfflinger-class battlecruisers "The Iron Dogs" May 11th: Grom Class May 12th: USS Enterprise May 13th: SMS Magdeburg May 14th: SC-497 class May 15th: Lord Nelson-class pre-dreadnoughts May 16th: Georgios Averof May 17th: IJN Chikuma (1912) May 18th: Kaiser Franz Josef I-class protected cruisers May 19th: Petropavlovsk-class pre-dreadnoughts May 20th: Katori-class May 21st: French heavy cruiser Algérie May 22nd: USS Ashtabula May 23rd: The OTHER Katori-class May 24th: HMS Faulknor May 25th: Zuikaku May 26th: Braunschweig-class pre-dreadnoughts May 27th: The Battle of Tsushima May 28th: Deutschland class pre-dreadnoughts May 29th: Landing Craft, Infantry May 30th: SMS Admiral Spaun May 31st: Iron Duke Class June 1st: USS Ward June 2nd: HMS Mars June 3rd: SMS Thetis June 4th: The Battle of Midway June 5th: SMS Kolberg class June 6th: USS Nashville June 7th: USS South Dakota June 8th: Hawkins-class cruisers June 9th: USS Salt Lake City CA-25 June 10th: G13-class torpedoboats June 11th: Bolzano June 12th: Wittelsbach-class pre-dreadnoughts June 13th: USS North Carolina June 14th: Royal Sovereign-class pre-dreadnoughts June 15th: Nachi June 16th: HMS Alynbank June 17th: USS Pope June 18th: Ammiraglio di Saint Bon class June 19th: Zuihō-class June 20th: Zuihō June 21st: Prinz Adalbert class June 22nd: Centurion Class 1892 June 23rd: Hydra-class minelayers June 24th: Azuma June 25th: SMS Niobe June 26th: HMS Furious June 27th: Gabbiano-class corvettes June 28th: Lord Clyde class June 29th: Guiseppe Garibaldi-class June 30th: Deutschland-class Panzerschiffs July 1st: O-Class Destroyers July 2nd: SMS Goeben July 3rd: Drake Class July 4th: San Giorgio-class July 5th: Battle of Rice Anchorage July 6th: Battle of Kula Gulf July 7th: Black Swan-class Sloops July 8th: Hiryū July 9th: Varyag July 10th: Re Umberto-class July 11th: A-class destroyers July 12th: HMS Collingwood (1882) July 13th: Formidable-class pre-dreadnoughts July 14th: River-class frigates July 15th: The Battle of Kolombangara July 16th: Yorktown-class carriers July 17th: Mississippi class (Kilkis and Lemnos) July 18th: HMS Exeter July 19th: Borodino-class July 20th: Kako July 21st: USS Maryland BB-46 July 22nd: HMS Glowworm July 23rd: HMS Sheffield July 24th: Pisa-class cruisers July 25th: Akitsushima July 26th: J, K and N-class destroyers July 27th: Town-class (1910) light cruisers July 28th: Mogami-class cruisers July 29th: Pre-Dreadnought Retvizan aka Hizen July 30th: Colossus class dreadnoughts July 31st: USS Essex August 1st: HMS Erin August 2nd: Admiral Ushakov class August 3rd: Edinburgh class August 4th: The Kongo-class August 5th: Musashi August 6th: The Unryū-class August 7th: Bahia-class cruisers August 8th: Zenta class cruisers August 9th: Arethusa class cruisers August 10th: Depth Charges! August 11th: Mirabello class destroyers August 12th: Project 7/7U-class destroyers August 13th: A-class destroyers August 14th: Hilfskriegsschiff Passim August 15th: Ahead-Thrown Weapons! August 16th: USS Raleigh (CL-7) August 17th: FIDO August 18th: The Battle off Horaniu August 19th: Not a whole lot... :( August 20th: SMS Wiesbaden August 21st: Gridley class August 22nd: Bayan class cruisers August 23rd: Canopus class pre-dreadnoughts August 24th: Katori August 25th: Sleipner-class destroyers August 26th: HMS Tartar August 27th: nothing :( August 28th: Battle of Heligoland Bight August 29th: Nothing :( August 30th: USS Colorado BB-45 August 31st: Nothing September 1st: Courbet-class dreadnoughts September 2nd: Erebus class Monitors September 3rd: USS Canberra September 4th: 1 YEAR!!!! and HMS Queen Mary
FIND ALL OUR DAILY THREADS HERE GENERAL March 5th 1920 - HMS Hood - Admiral-class - Commissioned 1927 - MN Lamotte-Picquet - Duguay-Trouin-class - Commissioned 1937 - HMS Newcastle - Southampton-class - Commissioned 1939 - HMS Prince of Wales - King George V-class - Launched 1942 - HMS Stalker - Attacker-class - Launched 1942 - USS Hamlin - Bogue-class - Launched 1945 - USS Cape Gloucester - Commencement Bay-class - Commissioned 1946 - USS Manchester - Cleveland-class - Launched Allied Warships Laid Down – 30 Launched – 38 Commissioned - 34 Axis Warships Nothing of note 1920 Here in the 21st century more than 70 years after her destruction and almost 100 years after she was conceived and built we don’t think of the HMS Hood as “Mighty”. She is a footnote. The largest and in some ways most tragic of the ultimate capital ship folly that was the battlecruiser. In a brief few lines today I’ll say a little about her design and how it came about and leave the detailed discussion of her life to people who will do it justice like the H.M.S. Hood Association. As 1916 opened and Admiral of the Grand Fleet Sir John Jellicoe was asked “What ships does the Fleet need?” His answer was clear. . . Battlecruisers. Jellicoe had been a member of the committee that conceived HMS Dreadnought and HMS Invincible little more than ten years before. He now had more than a year of modern naval war experience with those same ships and the larger, faster, and more powerful, super-dreadnoughts that came down the ways after them, He was concerned that the Invincible and Indefatigables were too slow and too weak to go up against the expected next classes of German battlecruisers like SMS Hindenburg and SMS Mackensen. The existing German battlecruisers had proved to be tough and opponents and Naval Intelligence’s estimate was that these new ships would hit 30 knots and carry 15.2” guns (an overestimate as they were 28 knot ships as designed but carried much more armor than the British knew). Jellicoe and Admiral Beatty, the commander of the battlecruiser forces, both had little good to say about the Renown class ships then building (which JeeWeeJ covered yesterday) thinking six guns too few for good shooting and a narrow belt 6” of armor far too little to protect a capital ship. They did like her speed however and wanted the new ships to equal or exceed it. Beatty regarded HMS Glorious and her sisters as “freak” ships and wanted nothing to do with them and their 3” armor and only four heavy guns. The only thing liked about them for future ships was the shallow draft. Battleships of the day drew over 30 feet of water and given their length presented nearly a half an acre of target area to torpedoes. Reducing that target by having relatively shallow draft was desired. Jellicoe communicated that he was using the Queen Elizabeth class ships as a “fast wing” to make up for the lack of both firepower and staying power of the older battlecruisers but that their margin of speed over the battleships was insufficient for them to be really effectively tactically as a fast wing. So the 1916 requirements for new battlecruisers shape up as: Speed equal to Renown at 32 knots Minimum of eight heavy guns, expected to be 15”/42 as in Queen Elizabeth Shallow draft to limit torpedo target area Armor thicker and more extensive than Renown The Director of Naval Construction put forth a number of designs and it was settled to build a class of four 36,000 ton, 32 knot ships with 8 x 15” guns and 8” armor. The hull form was to be somewhat novel with a distinct outward angle to the hull side and therefore the side armor rather than the more vertical sides normally seen. This would make for a drier ship at high speed and enhance the protective value of the hull armor especially against plunging fire. The first ship of the new class, HMS Hood, was laid down on May 31, 1916, the same day as the Battle of Jutland. This is date listed in the ship’s Cover but it is not supported by shipyard documents. This date makes for a better story but John Brown shipyard lists September 1st as the laying down date. The reason we are talking about her today is March 5th is listed as the Commission date in some sources. But this was for trials and she is not fully Commissioned and accepted from the builders until May 15th, 1920. Very quickly after the battle the design was recast to correct the perceived faults that may have contributed to the loss of the three battlecruisers. The shallow draft requirement was relaxed and several thousand tons more armor worked in to the design. The Queen Elizabeth class ship had withstood punishment that cripple or sank the battlecruisers so this became the standard. No shell is to be able to pass through less that 9” of armor on its way to her vital areas. This is because no intact shell penetration of armor thicker than 9” was seen by the British. This makes Hood into a 32 knot Queen Elizabeth in all but name. Hood mid-section armor layout 1/600 scale models of Hood and Warspite for size comparison . Comparison of a few dimensions between the two ships: Hood versus Warspite Length 860 feet versus 640 feet Beam 104 feet versus 90 feet Draught 32 feet versus 30.5 feet Deep Displacement 47,430 tons versus 33,410 tons Hood emerges from the shipyard after the redesign as the largest and fastest warship in the world. She remains uniquely the biggest and the fastest for nearly all her life. She has equals in gun power, the eight 16” guns of the Nagato or the various American battleships with twelve 14” guns but she is by far the fastest ship and has armor the equal of the Nagato as built. Showing how the additional armor lowered freeboard aft She is an improvement on British battleships in gunnery even though fitted with the same eight 15” guns as two other classes of ships. 30 foot range finders, the largest up till that time, are installed. 30° elevation on the main guns adds over 7,000 yards to her firing range Reconfigured turret openings allowed the superfiring turrets to fire directly ahead and astern for the first time in British practice Improvements enhance the rate of fire by a third She is dubbed “The Might Hood”. And people love her. She is powerful and graceful all at once and nearly a century later people are still fascinated by her. Doing the research I fell a little in love with her all over again. There is an H.M.S. Hood Association and their web page contains so much more information than I could possibly put into a short article. http://www.hmshood.com/ Information I gathered from print sources primarily came from: “Battlecruisers” by John Roberts And “British Battleships 1919-1945” by R.A. Burt (the revised edition) The biggest warship of her day deserves some big pictures so I found a few. In Burt’s book he is at pains to point out that all main drawings in the book are to a constant scale, all except Hood whose likeness is too large to fit the format and so the scale has to be reduced. Language? Thanks for listening.