If something keeps on killing your planes, you need to stop sending your aircraft to that threat.
Clear Sky is actually a difficult badge to get. But 'lo and behold, Scharnhorst gets one because our CV kept on feeding planes, planes, and more planes against it.
If you come across something, anything that is deleting your planes, you need to steer your aircraft well clear of it. It may not even be that ship. It may be some escorting vessel like a Cleveland, Atlanta, Kutuzov, Neptune that is protecting your intended target. I get an attack run you make results in a bad loss of planes but you can't keep repeating that. More importantly, CVs cannot afford to lose planes at bad rates because you simply run out of aircraft.
CV with 0 planes = WORTHLESS
Worse than that NC sniping at 20km+.
The Tier IV-VI CVs in particular are very vulnerable to aircraft attrition because they lack the larger hangar capacity of Tier VII+ CVs. IV & V in particular are the worst at attrition. One terrible run with high losses can cripple your efforts for the remainder of the match as you send depleted squadrons.
So what do you do?
1. Attack something else. The easiest answer. Surely there's a DD somewhere that can get attacked. Maybe some enemy ship is isolated and easier to attack. Anything but throwing planes away for no gain.
2. If it's a high priority, important target like a Battleship but it has good AA, don't go after it at first. Let your teammates pummel it a bit. Every BB (or any ship) that has been beaten up a bit loses a bunch of modules, i.e. secondary, anti-aircraft, possibly even main battery modules. Even a Tier VII+ USN BB with high AA rating will plummet in AA performance after it's been focus fired a bit. That is when you send your bombers and you'll have an easier time doing it with fewer losses.
CVs are the only ships in the game where they have "finite ammunition." You only have so many planes, so many "bullets" to expend before you're out like in an FPS game. Only in WoWS, once you're out of planes you got no reload and you simply don't respawn with a fresh loadout like in a FPS game.